McLaughlin , CNN. CNN As the world's heath experts race to find treatments -- and eventually, a cure -- for the novel coronavirus , two drugs have jumped to the front of the conversation: chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. Chat with us in Facebook Messenger. Find out what's happening in the world as it unfolds.
More Videos Surgeon general's stark warning: It's going to get bad President Donald Trump has called the drugs, which are used to treat malaria and other conditions, game changers, and a rush to procure the pharmaceuticals spurred several US states to take measures to prevent shortages amid the Covid pandemic. Your coronavirus questions answered.
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New York moved to begin trials Tuesday, procuring 70, doses of hydroxychloroquine and , doses of chloroquine, Gov. Andrew Cuomo said. In addition, Bayer, the drug maker, has donated 3 million doses of Resochin, its brand name for chloroquine, to the federal government. Perhaps demonstrating why health officials are urging caution -- saying chloroquine requires further clinical study and might not be the panacea it's billed to be -- officials in Nigeria's Lagos state have reported three overdoses in the days since the drug entered the conversation surrounding the pandemic.
In Arizona, a man died after reportedly taking a nonmedical form of chloroquine used to fight parasites in aquariums. Chloroquine is used to treat malaria, as well as in chemoprophylaxis, which is the administering of drugs to prevent the development of disease, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
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Since , it has not been recommended for use in severe malaria because of problems with resistance, particularly in the Oceania region, according to the World Health Organization. WHO includes it on its list of "essential medicines," meaning it should be kept affordable and accessible at all times. Fauci: There is no 'magic drug' for coronavirus. Fauci: There is no 'magic drug' for coronavirus According to the Swiss-registered organization, Medicines for Malaria Venture , chloroquine is a derivative of quinine, which French chemists in isolated from the bark of the cinchona tree found in South America, employing it as a treatment for fevers.
German scientists created the synthetic chloroquine in as part of a class of anti-malarials, MMV said, and chloroquine and DDT became "the two principal weapons in WHO's global eradication malaria campaign" following World War II, the organization said.
Man dies after self-medicating with chloroquine phosphate to treat coronavirus
Hydroxychloroquine is what's known as an analog of chloroquine, meaning the two have similar structures but different chemical and biological properties. The former is considered the less toxic derivative , according to studies. It's given to patients with rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and the blood disorder porphyria cutanea tarda, the CDC said. The reason Trump lauds the drugs is because they've been shown, in labs, to be effective against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses -- including the SARS strain that causes Covid -- as well as other coronaviruses, the CDC said.
Hydroxychloroquine is being studied to determine if it can prevent the onset of Covid before or after a patient is infected with the SARS coronavirus strain that causes it, and if it can be used to treat Covid sufferers, the CDC said. However, the formula activated differently than the prescription, Alexis Kramer-Ainza, spokesperson for Banner Health, told BuzzFeed News, making them seriously ill. The man's wife, who asked her name not be used to protect her privacy, told NBC News that she took the drug after "I saw it sitting on the back shelf and thought, 'Hey, isn't that the stuff they're talking about on TV?
Coronavirus: Arizona man dies after self-medicating with chemical
Kramer-Ainza confirmed that the couple took the additive because they most likely read about chloroquine online and in recent news reports. Self-medicating will only cause more damage. Toxicologists confirmed the substance was responsible for the symptoms they were experiencing, Kramer-Ainza said.
The woman's condition is now stable, and she's expected to survive because she managed to throw up the drug. Chloroquine , which has been used in various medications to treat malaria and lupus, has been in the news recently because doctors in countries including South Korea, China, and France have reported positive results when administered to COVID patients, the New York Times reported.
Trump has repeatedly said the drug could be instrumental in the fight against the coronavirus. Maybe not, but I think it could be, based on what I see, it could be a game changer. The next day, Dr. So you really can't make any definitive statement about it. Fauci later went on Fox News to emphasize that there is no "definitive proof" the drug is effective.
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But on Saturday, the president heralded the drug's promise again, tweeting that coupling chloroquine with the antibiotic azithromycin has "a real chance to be one of the biggest game changers in the history of medicine. In their announcement, Banner Health experts stressed that "chloroquine, a malaria medication, should not be ingested to treat or prevent this virus. Kramer-Ainza added that the health system is hoping this is the first and last chloroquine case it sees. Nigeria has reported two cases of chloroquine poisoning since Trump's initial comments, Bloomberg reported.
The World Health Organization has not approved chloroquine to fight the virus, the Nigerian health organization said, and scientists are still working to confirm whether it's safe. Scientists are working hard to confirm the safety of several drugs for this disease. This will cause harm and can lead to death.